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Humanitarian Crisis in Venezuela, and Deteriorating Diplomatic, Commercial, and Immigration Relationships Between Panama and Venezuela


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Panama grants asylum to Venezuela judges

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Panama's Foreign Ministry

PANAMA  has granted political asylum to two judges of Venezuela’s   Supreme Court   said  The Ministry of Foreign Affairs on Friday, August 4.

A Ministry statement says: “in  recent days  the Deputy Magistrate and Attorney General, Gustavo Sosa Izaguirre, and the Deputy Magistrate of the Political-Administrative Chamber of the  Supreme Court of Justice, Manuel Antonio Espinoza Melet, entered the residence and diplomatic mission of Panama in Venezuela, respectively, requesting protection against the circumstances they are experiencing in Venezuela.

“Panama decided to make the decision in solidarity with the Venezuelan people and also asks the government of Nicolás Maduro to negotiate a political solution within the framework of the current constitution in Venezuela.

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Foreign Affairs Minister Isabel Saint Malo 

The Vice-President and Minister of Foreign Affairs, Isabel De Saint Malo said through Ministry social networks that “they granted asylum to the magistrates in solidarity with the Venezuelan people, and is now urging the support of the international community”.

Panama is one of ten countries, among which are the United States, Spain, Argentina and Colombia, who announced that they will not recognize the result of the vote for a Constituent Assembly.

This week De Saint Malo said that the government is evaluating the withdrawal of its ambassador in Caracas in the coming days.

The Panamanian government also recently announced that it will collaborate with Washington in its actions against Venezuelan officials, an initiative which was criticized by some political sectors.

After the recent meeting of  President Varela with  US  president Donald Trump, Panama’s  government has hardened its approach to Venezuela, which previously had been one of the closest in the region.

 

http://www.newsroompanama.com/news/panama/panama-grants-asylum-venezuela-judges

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  • Moderator_02 changed the title to Panama Responds to Political Crisis and Civil Unrest in Venezuela
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Panama withdraws ambassador from Venezuela

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Panama Foreign Minister Isabel Saint Malo
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PANAMA’S spat with Venezuela intensified on Thursday, April  5 with the announcement that it is withdrawing its ambassador from Venezuela and has asked the authorities of that country to to remove their representative from  Panamanian soil says the Foreign Ministry.

The move follows the notice published earlier in the day by the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, on the suspension of all economic relations, commercial and financial with some Panamanian officials and companies” the Foreign Ministry said in a statement.

“After analyzing Venezuela’s measures, the Panamanian government considers that it is a political reaction that lacks sustenance, and is adopted outside the international legal framework, adopted in retaliation for the actions announced by Panama. Therefore, the Government of Panama has decided to withdraw its Ambassador in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, Miguel Mejía, and asks the Venezuelan Government to withdraw its accredited Ambassador in Panama, Jorge Durán Centeno, ”

The Foreign Ministry stated that other actions are being evaluated.

 

http://www.newsroompanama.com/news/panama/panama-withdraws-ambassador-from-venezuela

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Venezuela plays tit for tat after  Panama laundering alert

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Varela and Maduro in more cordial times
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A week after Panama  included  Venezuelan President  Nicolás Maduro and other top political leaders on a list of high risk  potential money launderers the South American country  has retaliated with the suspension  of  all commercial and financial activity with a group of Panamanian officials and companies, including Panamanian President Juan Carlos Varela and Copa Airlines, as a measure of protection for their economic system.

In a resolution disclosed on Thursday, April 5 the Venezuelan government banned for 90 days any financial, commercial and economic activity with 22 Panamanian figures and 46 companies in the country

Panama had p recommended to banks or other entities to maximize the supervision of transactions involving the persons on its list.

 

http://www.newsroompanama.com/news/panama/venezuela-plays-tit-for-tat-after-panama-laundering-alert

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  • Moderator_02 changed the title to Diplomatic and Commercial Relationships Between Panama and Venezuela Become Strained

If a mob can't pull Maduro off the world stage, I don't see any hope for Venezuela.  He's relatively young, and completely blind to his own people's suffering.   His waistline alone infuriates me in a nation of starving people.   And this in a country that was one of the wealthiest in South America.   What a mess socialism has made of a once emerging country.  Added to that fact that both Maduro and Hugo Chavez have transformed the country into a dictatorship.  Starving people have a much harder time storming the Bastille. 

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The Summit of the Americas to be held in Lima, Peru next week will be a big deal. Venezuela will be an important topic.

But if the US really wants to do something decisive, it would ban the import of Venezuelan crude oil. That would not be painless to the US. Citgo refineries on the Gulf Coast are machined to refine the heavy crude oil that Venezuela produces. A ban would shut them down and cost American jobs. It would also spike gasoline prices.

It would likely trigger the collapse in Venezuela which is needed for political reform, and which isn't a complete certainty today given some continued support for Venezuela from China and Russia. Citgo is effectively owned 50% by Venezuela and is the primary source of Dollars for the country. Cut off Venezuelan crude to Citgo refineries and gas stations and Maduro’s government will collapse. There are no other refineries that can use their oil easily. 

Venezuela's currency is already essentially worthless. Without dollars coming in, Maduro doesn't eat.

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It is very sad to see this happening in Venezuela but I think I understand how it arrived to this point. 

The good times rolled economically for Venezuela for decades until oil prices dropped in the early 80’s. Many people had 4 or 5 cars in the driveway because gasoline was so cheap. Life was good, the rich were getting richer, but the poor were getting poorer.

When I visited there in 1985 the Metro had just opened and the first malls were being constructed. Folks who had been part of an emerging middle class now couldn’t afford to leave the country because of a sinking currency, and the poor who lived on the hillsides surrounding Caracas were struggling. But still warm, friendly, accommodating folks.

Just a few years later on a return trip the mood of the people had very noticeably changed. Fuel prices had gone up a penny or two per gallon (about 25%) which meant all transportation costs had risen and the poor from the hillsides had to spend more of their meagre incomes just to get to work. 

Eventually the masses got tired of centuries of financial domination by the aristocracy and voted in Maduro.

The rest is history.

Edited by Keith Woolford
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Maduro move against Copa will hurt Venezuelans most

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President Varela
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The decision of the Venezuelan government to suspend Copa flights to the country for at least 90 days will hurt  the people of Venezuela more than the Panamanian airline, said  President Juan Carlos Varela on Friday, April 6.

Varela said that the decision, taken Thursday by President Nicolás Maduro affects his “own people”, remembering that Panama is a logistics route. It is not possible to continue dividing the Venezuelan people that “pitifully” have had to leave their country due to the humanitarian crisis his nation is going through.

Venezuela canceled Copa Airlines flights on Thursday,  after Panama’s Ministry of Economy and Finance of Panama included President Maduro and other top leaders of the South American country, in a list of people considered a high risk of money laundering, financing of terrorism and financing of the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.

In response to the Venezuelan  Government’s reaction to the blacklisting Panama withdrew its ambassador in Caracas, while President Maduro called his home for consultation.

Varela said that he does not want to enter into a diplomatic escalation. “What Panama did was to process a list of names to its financial institutions, not take sanctions, “Varela said.

He added that, based on international commitments, this procedure was made public, which produced the annoyance in the Venezuelan Government.

Varela also said that the Venezuelan decision on Thursday was a “political reaction”, before an election set for May 20 and “it will not be recognized by many countries. We hope that the reason prevails, but Panama will continue taking more measures in addition to those already announced in the next days or weeks. ”

It matched with “our foreign policy”, because “we are not going to allow the country to have limited rights such as Panamanian companies cannot transport Venezuelan passengers. ”

Copa statement
A statement from Copa Airlines said that with the aim of providing care to its passengers that have scheduled flights to and from Venezuela in the next three months, the company offers the possibility of reimbursing the total value of the tickets without penalties for flights not used. In the same way, passengers who have started their flight may reimburse the unused route without penalties.

 

http://www.newsroompanama.com/news/panama/maduro-move-against-copa-will-hurt-venezuelans-most

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Colon Free Zone reacts to Maduro move

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The decision on Thursday, April 5 of the Venezuelan Government to suspend for 90 days commercial and financial relations with companies in the Colon Free Zone  (ZLC) and the country,  has produced a quick response from the Users Association.

A statement published Friday said that the private sector of Free Zone, rejected the action taken by the Government of Venezuela, a country that still has a multi-million dollar debt with ZLC companies.

“As Panamanians, we note with concern, how Venezuela’s pending commitments affect our economy and the reinvestment of these resources for the benefit of our country.”

“As a union, we support our members and urge the Panamanian Government to take the appropriate actions to protect the companies affected by this measure.”

 

http://www.newsroompanama.com/business/panama-4/colon-free-zone-reacts-to-maduro-move

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US backs Panama in Venezuela stand-off

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Juan Carlos Varela and Nicolas Maduro
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Predictably The United States Department of State has expressed its support for Panama in its current dispute with Venezuela over measures adopted by the South American country against Panamanian authorities and companies.

The Venezuelan action suspending dealings with Panama commercial interests for 90 days, was in retaliation to Panama publishing a list of 55 people, to be watched for potential money laundering including President Nicola Maduro, and 16 high-risk Venezuelan companies.

In return, Panama recalled its Ambassador and called for the Venezuelan ambassador to leave Panama.

“The United States congratulates Panama for its energetic defense of democracy and human rights, and to promote stability in the hemisphere, ” said the State Department on Friday, April 6.

According to the Department of State, the actions undertaken by Panama will support “other efforts in the region to combat the abuse of financial systems by corrupt actors. ”

“The United States urges others in the hemisphere to side with  Panama and take measures in support of the Venezuelan people and their right to have their voices heard in free, fair and transparent, elections “the document adds.

 

http://www.newsroompanama.com/news/panama/us-backs-panama-in-venezuela-stand-off

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Venezuela cuts Ties with Panama

The Maduro government has announced a ban on carrying out commercial or financial activities with 22 Panamanian government officials and 46 Panamanian private sector companies.

Friday, April 6, 2018

Prensa.com reports that "...Among the Panamanian companies affected are Copa Airlines, Vida Panama, Supercentro Casanova, Casablanca, and Yamaha Music Latin America, among others."

The Venezuelan government's decision comes days after Panama included President Maduro and other top officials on a list of people at "high risk" of committing crimes such as money laundering. See: "New measures against money laundering".

Caracas justified the suspension of economic activities with Panamanian people and companies, alleging that it is doing so as a "measure to protect the financial, economic and commercial system."

Opposition from the Panamanian business community was immediate. In a statement, the Association of Users of the Colon Free Zone, said:   "... "As Panamanians, we note with concern how Venezuela's pending commitments affect our economy and the reinvestment of these resources for the benefit of our country"."   

"... The union urged the Panamanian government 'to take the appropriate actions to protect the companies affected by this measure' ... 

From a statement issued by the Presidency of Venezuela:

April 5, 2018 The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela has suspended for 90 days economic and financial relations with 22 natural persons and 46 national legal entities from Panama, as a measure to protect the Venezuelan financial system.  

The measure was formalized through a joint resolution of the Ministries of Popular Power for Interior Relations, Justice and Peace; Foreign Trade and International Investment; and Banking and Finance

 

https://www.centralamericadata.com/en/article/main/Deterioration_of_Trade_Relationship_Between_Panama_and_Venezuela

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Panama steps up reprisals on Venezuela

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PANAMA has ratcheted up its tit-for-tat response to Venezuela’s suspension of commercial activities with new retaliatory measures including the suspension, for a period of 90 (renewable) days, of all of air transportation, activities passengers, and cargo of Venezuelan airlines.

The measures. approved by the Cabinet Council on Tuesday, April 10. will be implemented  on April 25

Panama included Venezuela on March 30 in a list of countries that apply discriminatory or restrictive measures to the country’s international economic and commercial interests.

In reply , the Venezuelan government announced on April 5 the suspension of economic, commercial and financial relations for a period of 90 days that can be extended, with 22 Panamanians and 46 national companies, including the president of Panama, Juan Carlos Varela, and the vice president. Isabel de Saint Malo.

That led to the withdrawal of Panama ’s ambassador to Venezuela, Miguel Mejía and the request for the Venezuelan Government to withdraw its ambassador in Panama, Jorge Durán Centeno.

 

http://www.newsroompanama.com/news/panama/panama-steps-up-reprisals-on-venezuela

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Panama - Venezuela Conflict Worsens

In response to actions taken by the Maduro government, Panama will suspend cargo and passenger transport activities of Venezuelan airlines operating in the country for three months.

Wednesday, April 11, 2018

Immediately after the retaliation measures that the Varela administration intends to implement were made public, the Venezuelan government announced it will suspend economic relations with more companies in Panama and freeze their accounts, although they did not specify who those companies will be.

The suspension of the activity of Venezuelan airlines in Panama will come into effect from April 25.

From a statement issued by the Presidency of Panama:

The Government of the Republic of Panama today approved retaliation measures against the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, supported by the retaliation law and by virtue of the principle of reciprocity that governs international relations.

Therefore, the Cabinet Council ordered the suspension, for a period of ninety (90) days extendable, of all activities of air transport, passengers and cargo of Venezuelan airlines operating in Panama: Aeropostal Alas De Venezuela, S.A., Avior Airlines, Consorcio Venezolano De Industrias Aeronáuticas Y Servicios Aéreos, S.A. (Conviasa), Línea Aérea De Servicio Ejecutivo, Regional, Laser, Rutas Aéreas De Venezuela, S.A. (Ravsa), Santa Barbara Airlines, Turpial Airlines, C.A.

Read full release (in Spanish).

 

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Panama-Venezuela “dialogue bridge” collapses

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Isabel Saint Malo
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A meeting between high-level delegations from Panama and Venezuela to help resolve the soured relations between the two countries was held in Santa Domingo in The Dominican Republic but produced only an angry response from Venezuelan   President Maduro.

The  Panamanian Foreign Ministry said the meeting was held at the request of the government of    Nicolás Maduro, who -according to the Ministry – asked the  Dominican president Danilo Medina to establish “a dialogue bridge” between Panama and Venezuela.

Vice-president and Foreign Minister  Isabel de Saint Malo de Alvarado “was asked by President Juan Carlos Varela to accept the invitation of President Medina, “says a Foreign Ministry release.

Venezuelan Vice President Wilmor Castro Soltendo headed a Venezuelan team and the meeting was moderated by the Dominican Chancellor Manuel Vargas.

At the meeting, De Saint Malo de Alvarado clarified that the list published by the Anti-Money Laundering Commission of Panama “only formalizes lists issued by the international community, “while commercial sanctions applied by Venezuela to subjects and Panamanian companies (mainly Copa Airlines) ” directly affects directly trade between both countries and, above all, the transit of citizens of Venezuela, Panama and the region.”

Although Panama reiterates its interest in overcoming the”impasse”, Venezuela made a negative assessment of the meeting.

In a Facebook Live transmission, Maduro said that the “head of the Panamanian delegation” – whose name he did not specify- “came to insult and sully” the Venezuelan representatives.

According to the AFP  News agency, Maduro is willing to meet with Varela, to resolve the conflict which led to the mutual withdrawal of ambassadors on April 5.

 

http://www.newsroompanama.com/news/panama/panama-venezuela-dialogue-bridge-collapses

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Varela gives nod to Maduro meeting

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Varela and Maduro -"Friends"
Panama President Juan Carlos Varela is ready to talk with Nicolás Maduro his   Venezuela n counterpart, to solve the diplomatic and tensions between the two countries.

“In public life, talking is always an option,” said Varela, on Friday, April 20, after Maduro made known on Thursday that he wants to solve the impasse with Panama.

Varela emphasized that this is a “specific issue”, where what President Maduro has to do is “avoid further affecting the population of Panama, Venezuela and the region”.

He added that there are more than one million Venezuelans living in countries close to Venezuela that use Panama’s connectivity to see their families at events such as baptisms, birthdays, Christmas, marriages, or to bring them help. “For that reason, you cannot you can make decisions that hurt the citizens of your country, “said  Varela, who called for reflection.

In a social network message, Maduro said: “I want to solve the problems that have arisen with the president of Panama, from here I send a greeting.

President of Panama,  You were my friend, we are going to resolve this between you and me. ”

The Venezuelan leader revealed that a secret meeting was held in the Dominican Republic with the mediation of that country’s President Danilo Medina, at Venezuela’s request.

Tensions between Panama and Venezuela emerged after the  Varela government published in March publish a “high risk” money laundering list in which Maduro and other Venezuelan officials appeared.

In retaliation, Venezuela suspended economic relations for three months with a hundred Panamanian companies, including Copa Airlines.

Tit-for-tat retaliation followed and the ambassadors of both countries were withdrawn.

 

http://www.newsroompanama.com/news/panama/varela-gives-nod-to-maduro-meeting

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Panamanian President opens door to meeting with Maduro to deal with crisis

Sat, 04/21/2018 - 22:03

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Panamanian president Juan Carlos Varela did not dismiss today to meet with his Venezuelan counterpart, Nicolás Maduro, in an attempt to solve the recent bilateral crisis, which includes the suspension of the air connection between both countries and the withdrawal of their respective ambassadors.

"The heads of state are always in the different events held in the world; this is a specific issue and President Maduro has to avoid affecting the population of Panama, Venezuela and the region (.. .) In public life, talking is always an option," said Varela.

This was Panamanian president response during an event held in the interior of the country to the question of whether he would meet with Maduro, who this week said publicly that he was willing to hold a meeting with Varela to solve the “bilateral” problems.

"There are political differences, especially with the elections of May 20," in which Maduro seeks re-election and Panama will not recognize it, "but citizens of our countries must be our number one priority without affecting them," said Varela.

"More than one million Venezuelans are living in countries near Venezuela and use Panama's air connectivity to see their families," the Panamanian president recalled.

The beginning of diplomatic disputes goes back to March 28 when Panama asked the banks located in the country to intensify the financial supervision over 55 politically exposed Venezuelans, including Maduro, for being considered "high risk" in terms of money laundering.

The Venezuelan government announced in retaliation a few days later the rupture of commercial relations for 90 days renewable with a hundred Panamanian companies, including Copa Airlines, one of the few international airlines that continued operating in Venezuela and that suspended operations on April 6.

Panama responded by announcing the suspension, as of April 25 and for 90 days renewable, of passenger and cargo transportation activities of Venezuelan airlines in Panamanian territory. (With information from EFE)

 

http://www.panamatoday.com/panama/panamanian-president-opens-door-meeting-maduro-deal-crisis-6697

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Panama and Venezuela agree to resume diplomatic relations

 
  • EFE

Panama’s Foreign Ministry, through an official statement released on its website, announced that it would restore bilateral relations with the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela.

In the brief three-paragraph document, it is read that the decision was taken "in the interest of maintaining constructive bilateral relations without affecting the welfare of its citizens."

Both Panama and Venezuela agreed: "to reestablish the presence of the ambassadors" and "to maintain the diplomatic dialogue open in order to continue addressing the various aspects of the bilateral agenda."

Thirty days is the deadline defined by both countries to issue "a progress report to the Presidents".

In turn, it is announced the restoration of flights to and from Venezuela as of this Friday.

President Maduro spoke on Thursday afternoon about the case and said he did not believe in microphone diplomacy, "let's speak directly, Varela," he said while stressing that he is ready to resume relations, although he has been waiting for a call from his Panamanian counterpart to normalize relations.

 "He (Varela) knows that Venezuela has not acted against Panama, but in reciprocity before illegal measures and aggression against our country," said Maduro.

Relations between Panama and Venezuela suffered a diplomatic setback a couple of weeks ago, when Venezuelan President Nicolás Maduro accused of "recurrent use of the Panamanian financial system by Venezuelan nationals to mobilize money profited from crimes against public property". President Juan Carlos Varela, Chancellor and Vice President Isabel De Saint Malo and 46 companies from the Central American country are among those accused.

The Government of Panama decided to withdraw its ambassador Miguel Mejía, and asked Caracas to do the same with its diplomatic representative in the country, Jorge Durán, in response to Venezuelan "retaliation" to suspend economic relations with senior officials and Panamanian companies.

 

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Copa Venezuela flights resume next week

Posted on April 27, 2018 in PanamaPanama

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COPA AIRLINES  will restart flights from Panama to Venezuela next week says CEO and executive president of the airline, Pedro Heilbron.

The announcement on Friday, April  27 follows the patching up of relations between the two countries and the return of their ambassadors.

“We hope to renew flights as soon as possible  but that cannot be done overnight because those flights were canceled and right now there are no passengers with reservations, and we cannot fly empty planes, but we hope to restore  them  soon  and sell and reserve seats

Before the suspension there were  5 frequencies, three  from Caracas and Panama round trip, one for Valencia and another for Maracaibo.

Heilbron  told La Prensa that Copa cannot yet estimate  the losses that the interruption generated, but it was an important impact because the offices remained open and staff  continued operating.

Heilbron indicated that in total more than 900 flights were canceled corresponding to the three months in which the operation had to be suspended according to  the initial resolution of the Venezuelan Government.

 

http://www.newsroompanama.com/news/panama/copa-venezuela-flights-resume-next-week

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Panama-Venezuela flights resume

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The on-off relationship between Panama and  Venezuela is on again with the take-off of a Copa Airlines flight on Tuesday, May 1 from Tocumen International Airport.

Flights had been suspended following an April 6 decree by the Venezuelan Government in the midst of a diplomatic crisis between the two nations that ended last week.

“Today, very happy, we resumed our operations to #Venezuela”, the airline wrote on its Twitter account.

Copa announced last Friday that operations to Venezuela would resume on May 1   starting with flights to of Caracas and Valencia.

Flights to the city of Maracaibo will be reactivated from May 17 as well as more frequencies to the three cities in the following weeks.

 

http://www.newsroompanama.com/news/panama/panama-venezuela-flights-resume

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Panama will try to maintain a constructive relationship with the current period of Maduro

Mon, 05/21/2018 - 19:44

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Panamanian President Juan Carlos Varela said today that he will try to maintain a "constructive" relationship with the current government of Nicolás Maduro, and reiterated the position of his administration not to recognize the Sunday elections in which the Venezuelan head of state was re-elected.

"As long as President Maduro's current constitutional period is maintained (...) Panama is going to maintain a constructive relationship, seeking dialogue, peace and reconciliation," Varela told reporters.

When "this constitutional period of President Maduro ends, then we will see at that time with the countries of the Lima Group, of which we are part, what will be the next step," added the Panamanian president.

"Meanwhile, we urge constructive dialogue and the recognition that this (Sunday) election does not represent the democratic will of the people of Venezuela," he said.

On the decision announced Monday by the Lima Group to reduce the level of diplomatic relations and call the ambassadors for consultations, Varela said that in the case of the Panamanian representative, it is about knowing the vision he has about the Venezuelan situation and that then he can return to the diplomatic legation.

"It is calling for consultations so that he (the ambassador) explains his vision and returns," Varela told reporters as part of an official ceremony.

President Varela had repeatedly affirmed that he would not recognize the Sunday elections, in which Maduro was re-elected for the 2019-2025 period in a day starred by a record abstention, the absence of the main opposition group, and the demands of the defeated candidates of the repetition of elections due to the irregularities registered.

The Panamanian Foreign Ministry issued a statement declaring that the Government of Varela "does not recognize the results of the elections held" on Sunday in Venezuela, "for not considering the process as democratic or participatory."

The Lima Group announced on Monday that it will reduce the level of diplomatic relations with Venezuela and toughen the financial surveillance linked to that country after the elections on Sunday that, it said, "did not meet the international standards of a democratic, free, fair and transparent process".

In a statement the Group, made up of Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru and Saint Lucia, said that it will call "ambassadors in Caracas for consultations" and will summon "the ambassadors of Venezuela to express our protest."

He also announced that he will convene "a high-level meeting with authorities responsible for the issue of migration and refuge," in the expectation of a new wave of Venezuelan migrants.

He will also intensify "the exchange of financial intelligence information (...) on the activities of Venezuelan individuals and companies that could be linked to acts of corruption, money laundering or other illicit behavior".

 

http://www.panamatoday.com/panama/panama-will-try-maintain-constructive-relationship-current-period-maduro-6893

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  • 8 months later...

It appears that time's just about up for Nicolas Maduro as President of Venezuela. 

The President of the National Assembly, Juan Guaido, has declared himself constitutionally justified in claiming the top job and is being recognized by many other countries including Panama, Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, France, Guatemala, Honduras, Paraguay, Peru, and the U.S.

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Hopefully this will be a bloodless change in governance which will increase stability and reduce the flow of economic refugees in the region.

Edited by Keith Woolford
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  • Moderator_02 changed the title to Humanitarian Crisis in Venezuela, and Deteriorating Diplomatic, Commercial, and Immigration Relationships Between Panama and Venezuela

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